دانلود کتاب Hydro Electric Power Plants
POWER PLANT TECHNOLOGY – Hydro Electric Power Plants
When rain water falls over the earth’s surface it possesses potential energy relative to the oceans towards which it flows. This energy can be converted to shaft work where the water drops through an appreciable vertical distance.
The energy of water utilized for hydro power generation may be kinetic or potentiaL The kinetic energy of water is its energy in motion and is a function of mass and velocity, while the potential energy is a function of the difference in level of water between the two points, called the head. In either case continuous availability of water is a basic necessity. For this purpose water collected in natural lakes and reservoirs at high altitudes may be utilized or water may be artificially stored by constructing dams across the flowing streams. The ideal site is one in which a good system of natural lakes, with substantial catchment area, exists at a high altitude. Rainfall is the primary source of water and depends upon such factors as temperature, humidity, cloudiness, wind direction and velocity, etc. The utility of rain faU for power generation further depends upon several complex factors which include, its intensity and time distribution, topography ofland and its drainage characteristics, etc.